The main structure and working principle of the motor.
Electric motor (commonly known as "motor") refers to an electromagnetic device that converts or transmits electrical energy according to the law of electromagnetic induction. It is represented by the letter M in the circuit. Its main function is to generate driving torque as a power source for electrical appliances or various machinery. The generator is represented by the letter G in the circuit. Its main function is to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.
The motor mainly includes an electromagnet winding or distributed stator winding to generate a magnetic field, a rotating armature or rotor and other accessories. Under the action of the rotating magnetic field of the stator winding, a current flows through the squirrel cage aluminum frame of the armature and is rotated by the action of the magnetic field.
Stator (stationary part)
Stator core: a part of the magnetic circuit of the motor, and the stator winding is placed on it;
Stator winding: It is the circuit part of the motor, which is connected to three-phase alternating current to generate a rotating magnetic field;
Frame: Fix the stator core and the front and rear covers to support the rotor, and play the role of protection and heat dissipation;
Rotor (rotating part)
Rotor core: As a part of the magnetic circuit of the motor and the rotor winding is placed in the core slot;
Rotor winding: cutting the stator rotating magnetic field generates induced electromotive force and current, and forms electromagnetic torque to rotate the motor;
1. DC motor
A DC motor is a rotating electric machine that converts DC electric energy into mechanical energy (DC motor) or converts mechanical energy into DC electric energy (DC generator). It is a motor that can convert between DC electrical energy and mechanical energy. When it operates as a motor, it is a DC motor, which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy; when it operates as a generator, it is a DC generator, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
2. Stepper motor
Stepping motor is an open-loop control element stepping motor that converts electrical pulse signals into angular displacement or linear displacement. In the case of non-overload, the motor speed and stop position only depend on the frequency and pulse number of the pulse signal, and are not affected by the load change. When the stepper driver receives a pulse signal, it drives the stepper motor Rotate a fixed angle in the set direction. The angular displacement can be controlled by controlling the number of pulses, so as to achieve the purpose of accurate positioning; at the same time, the speed and acceleration of the motor rotation can be controlled by controlling the pulse frequency, so as to achieve the purpose of speed regulation.
Working principle of stepper motor
When current flows through the stator winding, the stator winding generates a vector magnetic field. The magnetic field drives the rotor to rotate by an angle, so that the pair of magnetic field directions of the rotor are consistent with the magnetic field directions of the stator. When the vector magnetic field of the stator rotates by an angle. The rotor also rotates an angle with the magnetic field. Each time an electric pulse is input, the motor rotates an angle to move forward. The angular displacement that it outputs is proportional to the number of input pulses, and the speed is proportional to the pulse frequency. Change the sequence of winding energization and the motor will reverse. Therefore, the number of pulses, frequency and the energization sequence of each phase winding of the motor can be used to control the rotation of the stepper motor.
3. One-way asynchronous motor
Asynchronous motor, also known as induction motor, is an AC motor that generates electromagnetic torque by the interaction of air gap rotating magnetic field and rotor winding induced current, thereby realizing the conversion of electromechanical energy into mechanical energy.
The working principle of single-phase asynchronous motor
In an AC motor, when the stator winding passes an AC current, an armature magnetomotive force is established, which has a great impact on the energy conversion and operating performance of the motor. Therefore, the single-phase AC winding is connected to the single-phase AC to generate the pulsating magnetomotive force. The magnetomotive force can be decomposed into the sum of two rotating magnetomotive forces with the same amplitude and opposite speed, thereby establishing forward and reverse in the air gap. Magnetic field and. These two rotating magnetic fields cut the rotor conductor and generate induced electromotive force and induced current in the rotor conductor respectively.
The current interacts with the magnetic field to produce positive and negative electromagnetic torque. The forward electromagnetic torque attempts to make the rotor forward; the reverse electromagnetic torque attempts to make the rotor reverse. The superposition of these two torques is the resultant rotation that drives the motor to rotate.
4. Permanent magnet motor
Permanent magnet motors are motors that use permanent magnets to provide a magnetic field. There are two conditions for a motor to do work, one is the existence of a magnetic field, and the other is the existence of a moving current in the magnetic field.
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